Wednesday, 27 February 2013

Google Book Search and YouTube

Google Book Search

Google began yet another project in 2004, announcing that it was working with several major libraries around the world to begin making their holdings freely available on the Internet. Using sophisticated equipment, the company began by scanning public-domain books from the libraries' collections. The books were converted into portable document files (PDFs) that are fully searchable, downloadable, and printable. Works still in copyright appeared only in fragmented “snippet” form. Google Book Search digitized about one million books per year in its initial years of operation.
In 2008 Google reached a legal settlement with two groups of authors and publishers that had sought to stop the company from making passages from their books available over the Internet. Google agreed to pay the groups $125 million for past transgressions, but, the agreement allowed, users could read for free up to 20 percent of each work scanned by Google, and, in exchange for allowing copyrighted works to be read (in part) online, the authors and publishers would receive 63 percent of all advertising revenue generated by page views of their material on Google's Web site.

Google Video and YouTube
Google's expansion was fueled largely by keyword-based Web advertising, which provided it with a sound footing to compete for dominance in new Web services such as the delivery of video content. In January 2005 Google launched Google Video, which enabled individuals to search the close-captioned text from television broadcasts. A few months later Google began accepting user-submitted videos, with the submitter setting the prices for others to download and view the videos. In January 2006 Google Video Store opened, with premium content from traditional media companies such as CBS Corporation (television shows) and Sony Corporation (movies). In June 2006 Google began offering premium content for free but with ads.
For all of its marketing advantages, however, Google was unable to overtake the leader in online videos, YouTube. Following its introduction in 2005, YouTube quickly become the favourite site for users to upload small video files, which often attracted millions of viewers. Unable to generate anywhere near the same number of uploads and viewers, Google bought YouTube for $1.65 billion in stock in November 2006. Rather than merging the Web sites, however, Google continued YouTube's operation as before.
There were questions about how Google would cope with the potential for copyright-infringement lawsuits over the copyrighted content that some consumers included in their homemade videos without permission and uploaded to YouTube. To reduce that risk, YouTube negotiated deals with a number of entertainment companies that would allow copyrighted video material to appear on its Web site and give YouTube users the right to include certain copyrighted songs in their videos. It also agreed to remove tens of thousands of copyrighted video files from its Web site. In November 2008 YouTube reached an agreement with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc. (MGM), to show some of the studio's full-length movies and television shows, the broadcasts being free to watch, with advertisements running alongside the programs.

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